Production of Environment Friendly Biodiesel Fuel from Fish Waste

Due to the damaging impacts of fossil fuels combustion to the environment by the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG’s) in the atmosphere, there is global interest in developing sustainable and renewable biofuels (such as biodiesel for diesel engines) to reduce carbon dependency. The biodiesel also helps in the reduction of disaster risk through the emissions of less harmful gases as compared to fossil fuels generating carbon dioxide, which is the main contributor to climate change and global warming. Aquaculture in Pakistan is becoming a sight of attention for the private and government sectors. According to statistics, Pakistan has many marine and inland fishery resources, which produces 1 million tons of fish annually, including 0.7 million tons from sea and 0.3 million tons from inland fish farms. These fish are consumed well but their waste is unable to be managed properly. Approximately fish contains 25% to 35% of waste which comes to approximate around 350,000 tons per year and can obtain 105,000 tons of fish oil (approx. 30% by weight). If this waste is disposed of in sea marine environment causes environmental concerns associated with disposal of fish wastes into ocean waters such as reduced oxygen levels in the seawaters at the ocean bottom, burial or stifling of aquatic organisms and spreading pathogenic infections from putrefying organic matter. Therefore, fish waste is considered as a potential feedstock that can be converted into biodiesel, which also contributes to a clean energy and healthy marine eco-system in compliance with UN SDG’s (GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy and GOAL 14: Life Below Water). If biodiesel conversion yield is 70% from the fish oil, then 73,500 tons of biodiesel can be produced per year. Pakistan’s total import of mineral diesel is 713000 tons/ year having import budget of USD 17.3 billion / year. Blending 10% biodiesel with mineral diesel can save a foreign exchange of USD 1.7 billion dollars. The total production cost of fish waste biodiesel was between Rs. 225 to 230 /litre as compared to selling price of mineral diesel Rs. 235 /litre. Utilization of solar energy can further reduce its production cost. Waste management has become an essential requirement to keep environment clean.

 (a) Raw fish waste (b) Fish bones and (c) Extracted fish oil (from left to right)


Extraction of Bio-Active Compounds from the processing of Shrimp waste

The extraction of valuable biopolymer material from biodegradable natural resources have acquired focus due to increase growing concerns about environment. Industrial wastes and agriculture wastes are produced in huge amount, along with it agro-waste and marine wastes are significant contributor in waste cycle around the world. In Pakistan and other countries, these wastes are generally not exploited to be reused or recycled. Agro and marine waste contain cellulose, proteins and other valuable compounds to use in many important processes including the production of bio-plastic, bio-films and food application. People consume seafood and throw the outer shells of these fishes and shrimps or during pre-processing of fishes and shrimps their exoskeleton is being treated as waste and leftover, without knowing the potential this waste has. One of the major components this waste contain is Chitosan, which has multiple application one of which is application as bio-film. As fruit industry is on the verge of increasing the import/export volume, similarly the waste is also accumulating and increasing, considering the need the shelf life of these fruits and vegetables, a sustainable solution to preserve them is required, which can be achieve through chitosan made bio-films. The extraction of Chitosan is started with collection of shrimp’s shells and series of chemical treatments having three main steps including Demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. These steps involve treatment with HCl and NaOH dilute and concentrated subsequently. Test for the Chitosan include solubility in the presence of acetic acid and degree of deacetylation with titration. The chitosan can further utilize for the preparation of biofilm. The biofilm is made with acetic acid and essential oil which can be used on citric and non-citric fruits to increase the shelf life of fruits.

Activity Summary Graph

The following graph depicts the course offerings and other recent activities carried out at NED University of Engineering and Technology both at undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG), relevant to the requirements of sustainable development goal 14. A brief description of the same follows.


Undergraduate Courses

Following is the list of relevant courses currently being offered in different undergraduate programmes of the University. The credit hour detail of the same can be found in the University’s Undergraduate Prospectus, available at


1 DS-406: Environmental Issues in Development
2 DS-408: Sustainability in Development
3 FD-430: Food Engineering Project
4 ME-420: Operations Management
5 ME-421: Gas Turbine
6 ME-425: Finite Element Analysis
7 ME-426: Plant Maintenance
8 ME-428: Health, Safety & Environment
9 ME-429: Water Treatment & Desalination
10 ME-430: Mechatronics
11 ME-431: Tribology
12 ME-432: Health, Safety and Environment
13 ME-435: Operations Management
14 ME-436: Mechanical Vibrations
15 ME-437: Machine Design and Vibration Lab
16 ME-438: AI and Internet of Things
17 MM-301: Corrosion: Protection and Prevention
18 MY-413: Corrosion Engineering
19 PE-202: Petroleum Geology
20 PE-210: Thermodynamics-I
21 TS-102: Textile Raw Materials-I
22 TS-108: Textile Raw Materials-II
23 TS-109: Introduction to Textiles
24 TS-119: Introduction to Textiles
25 TS-205: Pre-Spinning Processes
26 TS-206: Yarn Production Processes
27 TS-207: High Performance Fibres
28 TS-208: Weaving Preparatory Processes
29 TS-209: Colour Science
30 TS-233: Textile Testing-I
31 TS-245: Pre-treatment in Textiles
32 TS-341: Advanced Yarn Production Processes
33 TS-343: Weaving Mechanisms
34 TS-354: Knitting Technology
35 TS-356: Textile Dyeing
36 TS-358: Textile Printing
37 TS-361: Textile Testing-II
38 TS-455: Advanced Fabric Manufacturing Technique
39 TS-458: Project
40 TS-470: Technical Textiles

Postgraduate Courses

Following is the list of relevant courses currently being offered in different postgraduate programmes of the University. The credit hour detail of the same can be found in the University’s Postgraduate Prospectus, available at


1 AR-626: Remote Sensing
2 BM-542: Finite Element Method
3 BM-553: Advanced Biomaterials
4 CE-5002: Thesis
5 CE-5016: Fundamentals of Environmental Laws for Construction Industr1
6 CE-532: Foundation Engineering
7 CE-533: Soil Foundation D1namics
8 CE-538: Groundwater and Seepage
9 CE-539: Subsurface H1drolog1
10 CE-579: Water Qualit1 Management
11 CE-580: Applied H1drolog1
12 CE-583: Groundwater Engineering
13 CH-5002: Thesis
14 CH-517: Corrosion
15 C1-511: Research Methodolog1
16 C1-512: Drug and Heteroc1clic Chemistr1
17 EE-5002: Thesis
18 EN-5002: Thesis
19 EN-502: Environmental Applied Science
20 EN-508: Environment Impact Assessment
21 EN-510: Process D1namics in Environmental S1stem
22 EN-511: Environmental Management
23 EN-513: Industrial Waste Treatment and Disposal
24 EN-514: Water Resources Management
25 EN-515: Air Pollution and Control
26 EN-518: Sustainable Development & Appropriate Technolog1
27 EN-520: Marine Pollution and Control
28 EN-521: Special Topics in Environmental Engineering
29 EN-523: Anal1sis of Environmental Contaminants
30 EN-524: Wastewater Engineering
31 EN-525: Ph1sico Chemical Processes
32 EN-526: Solid Waste Management
33 EN-527: Environmental Health and Sanitation
34 EN-531: Environmental Qualit1 Management
35 EN-537: Water Qualit1 Management
36 EN-540: Health, Safet1 & Environmental Management
37 EN-541: Remote Sensing in Environmental Management

Undergraduate projects

Following is the list of relevant Final Year Design Projects (FYDP) thesis carried out at undergraduate level in the University.

  • Effectiveness of Bio-waste for the Removal of Oil from Wastewater
  • Application of Bio-sorbents to Remove Organic and Inorganic Pollutants from Wastewater.
  • Fabrication and design of solar based air purifier for improving air quality index
  • Electric Power Generation using wind turbine by applying the concept of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) where constant power output is achieved in variable wind conditions
  • Water Trash Collecting Robot Using Wireless Communication
  • Smart Helmet
  • Home automation and Home security using AI
  • Designing of ion exchange membrane module for caustic recovery from mercerization waste

Postgraduate Projects

Following is the list of relevant thesis carried out at postgraduate level in the University.

  • Classification of various furniture items from indoor and outdoor 3D point clouds (IE)

Externally Funded Research Projects

Following is the list of relevant research projects funded by external agencies, which are currently being carried out in the University.

  • Solar powered atmospheric plasma system for treatment of contaminated wastewater
  • Smart potable water harvesting grid for adaptive social capacity in varying humidity and insolation regions
  • Development of Energy efficient housing design
  • Smart Potable Water Harvesting Grid for Adaptive Social Capacity in varying Humidity and Insolation Regions

Events and Curricular Activities

A number of relevant activities are being carried out from time to time in the University, both by the departmental administrations and the students. Some significant activities are as follows.

  • The session on Reuse of Plastic Bottle for Plantation